HIV Foundation Health Osteoarthritis in the knee: How stem cells can repair damaged cartilage

Osteoarthritis in the knee: How stem cells can repair damaged cartilage

It crunches and cracks, and some movements during exercise are really painful. When the knee shows signs of wear and tear, those affected want a miracle cure that rebuilds the cartilage. Hope rests on stem cells.

  • The body’s own stem cells have a positive effect on osteoarthritis-related inflammation in the knee.
  • A study now wants to clarify whether they actually build up permanent cartilage.
  • A transplant can repair minor cartilage damage in young patients.

After a certain age, signs of wear and tear become noticeable in the knee . After the age of 30, the risk increases linearly. The painful, inflammatory breakdown of cartilage in the operating room and with an artificial knee ends 150,000 times a year. Then smooth metal has to replace the cartilage layer, which allows round, painless movements in a healthy knee.

The idea frightens many people suffering from osteoarthritis. They hope for new methods to rebuild lost cartilage: stem cells should help.

Belly fat provides the best stem cell material

The doctor uses the patient’s belly fat as a starting material. The idea behind it: stem cells can be obtained particularly easily and in relatively large numbers from vascular fat tissue. Injected at the location of the defect, they learn from the microenvironment into which cell type they should develop.

According to this principle, the doctor and stem cell researcher Eckhard Alt uses the undifferentiated cells : Stem cells from the patient’s fat tissue are processed in the operating room within an hour and injected into the patient where he needs them – for example into the osteoarthritis knee.

The founder of the “Interdisciplinary Stem Cells Research Center” in Houston and a private clinic in Munich sees stem cells as the future therapy for chronic inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system – among other things.

The cell extract in the knee does not guarantee success

Some orthopedic practices that offer the procedure honestly state that it is a not generally recognized attempt at healing with no guarantee of success. Rather, it is a final experimental attempt to remedy knee problems without a joint replacement.

“In this so-called ‘point-of-care’ application, a cell extract is injected that not only consists of stem cells,” explains Oliver Pullig from the Fraunhofer Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine in Würzburg. How many stem cells that are supposed to develop into cartilage material actually get into the knee is just as little regulated as the preparation of the suctioned off belly fat.

Development of osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis most commonly occurs on the fingers, thumbs, knees, hips and big toes.

Arthrosis is always preceded by cartilage damage. Cartilage is considered to be a “shock absorber” for the joints. Initially, the damage to the cartilage is often superficial and limited to a small area. In the advanced stage, the symptoms worsen. Tension pain occurs and the joints change.

The joints react to the cartilage damage with pain, swelling or inflammation.

Stem cells instead of knee prostheses

A Europe-wide study is currently looking for scientific evidence of the anti-osteoarthritis potential of the body’s own stem cells.

A small one with six patients in Würzburg and twelve in Montpellier, France, led to success in 2013: Almost all participants canceled their previously unavoidable operation for a knee prosthesis. “Your complaints had improved throughout,” explains Oliver Pullig. “A reconstruction of cartilage was unlikely with such a large damage.”

The follow-up study that has just begun with 153 participants at ten European locations therefore fulfills a requirement that the German study director Ulrich Nöth from the Evangelical Forest Hospital Berlin-Spandau formulated back then: Stem cell therapy is best suited for patients with middle and middle-aged osteoarthritis. You are no longer eligible for a cartilage transplant, but you are too young to have an artificial joint.

New cartilage from stem cells? A study should show it

Like the pilot study, the ADIPOA2 study uses so-called mesenchymal stem cells from the abdominal fat of each subject. These precursor cells of the connective tissue have the ability to develop into cartilage, bone or fat cells.

Biologist Oliver Pullig explains: “We take 100 milliliters of belly fat from each participant. The stem cells obtained from this are multiplied millions of times in special laboratories. That takes a good two weeks. 51 patients then receive two million of these pure stem cells injected into the joint, 51 patients receive an injection with 10 million cells and 51 patients receive a placebo. “

Results should be available by the end of 2018, and thus scientific proof of whether stem cells fulfill the hope of permanently building cartilage. The scientist is optimistic: “If successful, the therapy with stem cells as a drug could be ready for the market at the next study level. It doesn’t take five years. “

Cartilage transplant only helps to a limited extent

Another method to restore lost cartilage is transplantation, which has been tried and tested for 20 years. So far, however, it has only been successful in the case of centimeter damage in an otherwise intact knee. The operation is laborious and the healing process long.

In the first keyhole surgery, the doctor removes a small piece of healthy cartilage, hardly larger than a grain of rice. These cartilage cells are propagated in the laboratory in three to four weeks. In a second operation, the surgeon places these cells or the cartilage patch on the defective area in the knee.

After that, the knee must not be subjected to any load for six weeks, then only lightly for another six weeks. Only after a year is the joint stable enough for sport to be possible.

Cartilage from the laboratory is expensive

The transplant is only suitable for younger knee patients whose cartilage and joints are free from osteoarthritis. If this therapy is successful, it can prevent further cartilage damage and a later threatened knee prosthesis.

Then, in the long term, the costs of several thousand euros for cells grown in a laboratory will pay off.

Hyaluronic acid can at least relieve pain

If these methods are out of the question, another remedy can help: synthetic hyaluronic acid is often misunderstood as a substance for building up cartilage. However, it cannot produce worn cartilage, but serves as a lubricant and for joint care.

Orthopedic surgeons inject the moisture-retaining gel three to five times at weekly intervals. Hyaluronic acid relieves pain and promotes mobility – permanently for some patients, at least for a year or two for others. Then the treatment can be repeated.

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“Cancer cells are fed” – underestimated health risks lurk in meat and sausage“Cancer cells are fed” – underestimated health risks lurk in meat and sausage

Iron deficiency is often discussed. There is hardly any talk about the opposite, the frequent overloading with heme iron, the iron form made from red meat and sausage. It promotes the common diseases of diabetes, cancer and arteriosclerosis. FOCUS Online shows how you can meet your iron needs in a healthy way.

The trace element iron is indispensable for a number of vital metabolic functions in the body. As a component of hemoglobin in the red blood cells, it supplies every body cell with oxygen. Iron deficiency, which manifests itself in anemia, exhaustion, susceptibility to infection, affects around 20 percent of women and ten percent of men in Germany. The higher risk for women is explained by menstruation and decreases accordingly when the childbearing phase of life is over.

Many people have an excess of iron – and know nothing about it

Iron deficiency is known and many nutrition-conscious people pay attention to adequate iron intake. However, significantly more people could have anything but an iron deficiency, namely too much of this trace element. Probably very few people know about it, although it carries a high risk of disease.

Heme iron and non-heme iron: these are the differences

First and foremost, it is important for these relationships – there are the two known, different forms of iron, only one of which can be hazardous to health:

1. Heme iron , i.e. bivalent iron (Fe), mainly found in red meat and sausage. Heme iron has a high bioavailability, the body can use at least 20 percent from food.

2. Non-heme iron , trivalent iron (Fe3), from plant-based nutrient suppliers such as legumes, whole grains, nuts, oil seeds and various types of vegetables. Non-heme iron must first be oxidized to some form of Fe in the small intestine in order for the body to use it. In this way, only around five percent of the iron from food comes into play.

The iron requirement per day is 15 milligrams for women and 10 milligrams for men.

Underestimated health risk heme iron

What is certain is that most people in industrialized nations have at least a sufficient supply of the trace element. Due to our meat and sausage-heavy diet, a large part is even oversupplied with heme iron, and thus risks diseases. Various studies indicate these relationships .

“We assume that too much heme iron can have negative health consequences through eating meat,” explains Matthias Riedl, board member of the Association of German Nutritionists (BDEM) and diabetologist, nutritionist, internist, managing director and medical director at Medicum Hamburg.

The human organism is not prepared for high meat consumption

Normally, a complex mechanism of substances in the liver and intestines controls the iron level. If too much iron storage protein ferritin is measured, the body slows down absorption. “This does not work adequately with large amounts of heme iron, the body continues to absorb it, simply because this form of iron is extremely easy to use,” says the expert.

The nutritionist explains that the cause lies in our evolutionary history. Up until two million years ago, humans were purely plant-eaters, only then did they add animal consumption. That was sometimes more, mostly less meat – definitely a lot less than is regularly eaten today. The human organism is not prepared for this.

High consumption of heme iron feeds cancer cells

The excess iron is then deposited in the pancreas, liver and spleen, which can put stress on the organs. But that’s not all. “Heme iron can promote mutations via certain chemical compounds – for example in intestinal cells, but also in other cells,” warns the internist.

In addition, these compounds have a cytotoxic effect, so they can not only change cells, but also damage them. “And cancer cells, on the other hand, are properly fed by heme iron, so to speak,” says the expert. Malignant cells have a high demand for this trace element. A high consumption of heme iron means that existing cancer cells grow better and are stronger against the immune system.

Meat lovers are more likely to develop diabetes and arteriosclerosis

In addition to the connection between heme iron and cancer, many nutritional studies have shown two other negative effects of the “meat iron”:

1. Numerous studies show that people who consume a lot of sausage and meat are particularly likely to have type 2 diabetes .

2. In addition, this dietary preference often leads to arteriosclerosis , with the well-known secondary diseases of high blood pressure, heart attack and stroke.

“If people don’t eat ‘appropriately’, they get sick”

The higher the meat consumption, the higher the risks for cancer, diabetes and arteriosclerosis. What actually stands behind it: “If people do not eat ‘species-appropriate’, i.e. eat too much red meat and sausage and thus too much heme iron, they will get sick,” warns Matthias Riedl. It is well known that primitive peoples who still eat originally – eat very little meat and no sausage – do not have arteriosclerosis at all, for example.

Trivalent iron from plants is converted into bivalent iron

So heme iron has a rather negative effect on the body. Non-heme iron, on the other hand, does not pose these health risks – but is converted into bivalent iron in the body in order to make it available. Doesn’t it then become as unfavorable as bivalent heme iron? “No, because the trivalent iron from plants is converted into a bivalent iron, but not into heme iron,” explains the expert.

Providing the body with healthy iron – vegetables and fruits with non-heme iron

In order to provide the body with sufficient iron without meat, there are a number of plant-based foods that have a high content of non-heme iron, such as:

  • Lentils around 2.7mg / 100gr
  • Chickpeas around 2.7mg / 100gr
  • Peas 1,5mg / 100gr
  • Spinach 3,6mg / 100gr
  • Chanterelles 6.5mg / 100gr
  • Elderberry 1.6mg / 100gr
  • Pine nuts 9.2mg / 100gr
  • Millet 6.9mg / 100gr
  • Flaxseed, ground 8,4mg / 100gr
  • Amaranth 8.9mg / 100gr

Spinach contains a comparatively high amount of iron for a plant-based food, but at the same time the substances it contains can prevent it from being absorbed by the body. Beans or lentils are therefore better suited as a vegetarian source of iron.

Intelligently upgrade the bioavailability of iron from vegetables and fruits

Sure, none of these foods provide as much iron as meat. “The availability of iron from plant-based foods can be increased by cleverly combining the ingredients in a meal,” says Matthias Riedl. Vitamin C, for example, improves absorption. Suggestion for a corresponding daily plan:

  • In the morning: oatmeal / muesli with fruit, a glass of orange or lemon juice for breakfast,
  • Lunch: millet salad with paprika (the pods are extremely rich in vitamin C),
  • In the evening: whole wheat pasta with broccoli or parsley pesto

Coffee and tea inhibit iron availability

However, there are also plant substances that have an inhibiting effect on iron absorption. These are phytates and polyphenols, for example, these plant substances are contained in coffee and tea. So avoid these drinks during, immediately before and after a meal containing iron. In wholemeal products, on the other hand, the phytate content plays a lesser role, as they convince with their high iron content.

Cover your iron requirement healthily, certain meats are also allowed

“Those who follow a purely vegetarian / vegan diet can still get too little iron, especially women are at risk here,” says the expert.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women in particular should take preparations if they have a proven iron deficiency. Otherwise there is a ‘species-appropriate’ solution for everyone: That means a small, moderate meat meal per week, preferably poultry meat, because white meat is not statistically associated with the disease risks mentioned.

Key Principles of Implant DentistryKey Principles of Implant Dentistry

Before your consultation with your dentist at implant dentistry san diego, you should know what to expect from your procedure. The main points of this article are the importance of soft tissue, bone, and implant placement. Occlusal contact is also a crucial point to consider. All these points should be carefully examined before treatment. The goal of your GP is to protect you and the staff. Before you go in for your appointment, ask yourself if you have any of these risk factors.

Bone

Whether the procedure is a flap-less or traditional surgery, it requires careful planning. In either case, a series of drills gradually enlarges the site of the implant. The final bur is slightly smaller than the implant itself, and it is placed with a torque-controlled wrench to avoid overheating the bone. The bone surrounding the implant is then reshaped to accommodate the new fixture.What is a Dental Implant Same Day Procedure? - Smiles By Julia Fort  Lauderdale Florida

Osteointegration occurs when the biomaterial that is used to support dental implants is osteoconductive. This material enables the dental implant to integrate with the bone surface. Histological studies have shown that implant surface contacts the host bone and initiates the healing process. The procedure follows a sequence similar to that of bone regeneration in fractures and small defects. It ends with “restoration ad integrum,” or the absence of scar tissue.

Soft tissue

The success of dental implants depends on the stability of soft tissue surrounding the implants. This stability is best achieved through proper diagnosis and surgical planning. Inadequate soft tissue evaluation can lead to improper placement of dental implants, which is detrimental to both patient and implant health. Soft tissue grafting can be performed to address these soft tissue concerns. Grafting techniques differ according to patient anatomy and morphology. The biotype of the gingival tissues is based on the morphology of the tooth, bone, and gum tissue. An underdeveloped biotype can lead to pocket formation. A biotype with thick, flat tissue may not be suitable for implant placement.

The graft site must provide adequate vascularisation for the graft. It must be rigidly immobilised and provide adequate hemostasis. The donor tissue must be large enough to facilitate immobilization and achieve the desired volume augmentation after secondary contraction. Soft tissue grafting should be performed before the bone grafting procedure. If soft tissue grafting is not possible, connective tissue autografts can be used.

Implant placement

If successful dental implant placement is the ultimate goal, then a modern dentist will implement reproducible treatment protocols, which will ultimately lead to more successful outcomes. There are five key principles of implant dentistry, including past medical history, examination, occlusion, dental imaging, fixed versus removable prosthodontics, and surgery. This article will discuss each of these concepts and their proven contributions to implant dentistry. You should consider implementing these principles into your practice, too.

While successful implant placement is crucial, it’s also the most challenging aspect. Implant placement can go wrong, causing the implant to misalign with the bone. This can lead to unnatural crowns, gum recession, and dark grey metal around the gum. Improper implant placement can result in poor oral health and failure. In order to minimize these risks, patients should follow oral hygiene and care instructions closely for the long-term success of their implants.

Occlusal contact

Occlusal contact is an important component of implant prosthesis and must be accounted for. Ideally, occlusal contact should occur over a flat surface perpendicular to the implant body and be centered over the implant abutment. Secondary occlusal contacts should be placed within one millimeter of the implant body’s periphery to reduce the moment loads. Contacts with the marginal ridges should be avoided, as they are the most susceptible to cantilever forces and should be recontoured to occlude with the central fossa.

When there is an occlusal disparity, the dentist can utilize articulating papers or ribbons to check the occlusion. While these devices leave a contact mark, they are not effective because they are too thick and don’t give enough information to detect an occlusal disparity. Further, the thicknesses of dental marking ribbons vary from 20 microns to 200 microns.

Maintenance

Among other things, the maintenance phase of dental implants entails various parameters and risk factors. During this phase, patients should be informed of the procedures and associated risks. This is because a maintenance procedure involves the continued replacement of a dental implant with a new one. Informed consent is the key to a successful maintenance process. Here are some of the most critical aspects of the maintenance phase. Read on to learn more about the important aspects of this phase of dental implants.

A typical dental implant maintenance visit should last approximately an hour. The dentist will check for any changes to the patient’s medical and dental history. Instrument selection is also important, to avoid trauma to the implant surface or peri-implant tissues. Although an increasing number of patients opt for dental implants, they should understand the challenges of their treatment and follow their recommendations for routine dental care. Listed below are some tips for maintaining dental implants:

Complications

There are a number of complications associated with dental implants. While these complications are relatively rare, they can still occur. Listed below are some of the most common ones. These complications can occur for several reasons, including bone loss, smoking, gum disease, or poor oral hygiene. If you experience any of these symptoms after implant dentistry, contact your dentist as soon as possible. If you’re unsure whether implant surgery is right for you, read on to learn about the potential complications and how to prevent them.

Biomechanical stress is the leading cause of implant failure. This stress causes the implant to fail early or fracture, abutment or prosthetic screw to loosen, and implant crestal bone to collapse. Additionally, implants can become loose and cause overdentures to fall out. These complications are avoidable through a systematic engineering approach, including the identification of underlying causes. In general, implant placement is a successful procedure in 95% of cases.

Why Natural Products Are Best To Treat Health AilmentsWhy Natural Products Are Best To Treat Health Ailments

A lot оf people suffer frоm health related problems thеѕе days аnd thеу аrе slowly starting tо realize hоw important health іѕ. Thеу аrе starting tо tаkе steps tо maintain thеіr health аnd fitness. Taking proper care оf уоur health includes mаnу things frоm changing уоur eating аnd lifestyle habits tо avoiding unhealthy foods еtс. At thе ѕаmе tіmе, іf уоu suffer frоm аnу disease оr problem thеn уоu аlѕо need tо tаkе medication tо treat thаt condition.

In order tо treat аnу ailment, уоu hаvе 2 choices. Eіthеr уоu саn opt fоr natural health products оr choose thе chemical based medications thаt doctors prescribe. Chemical based medicines mау provide quick relief, but thеу саn prove quite harmful іn thе lоng run. Thеу саn саuѕе unwanted side-effects whісh саn bе difficult tо gеt rid оf. Mоrеоvеr, уоur bоdу mіght gеt used tо ѕuсh medicine аnd уоu wіll оnlу feel better whеn уоu tаkе thе medications. Onсе уоu stop using thеm, thе ailment wіll usually соmе bасk аgаіn.

Fоr thіѕ reason, іt іѕ highly advisable tо uѕе natural health products fоr treating health conditions. Dо nоt рut уоur health аt risk bу using chemicals аnd antibiotics. Natural health products саn treat аlmоѕt аnу kind оf health issue ranging frоm kidney problems, diabetes, obesity, heart problems аnd muсh mоrе. Hоwеvеr, іt mау tаkе a little longer tо start seeing results. But dо nоt worry аѕ уоur ailment іѕ likely tо gеt treated frоm thе root аnd mау eventually vanish оff. Yоu саn аgаіn enjoy a healthy life wіthоut having tо depend оn medicines.

At thе ѕаmе tіmе, уоu hаvе tо bе a little careful hеrе. Duе tо thе rising іntеrеѕt оf people іn natural health products, mаnу bogus products hаvе соmе uр іn thе market. Thеrе аrе mаnу products whісh аrе labeled аѕ ‘natural’ but contain harmful chemicals аnd аrе nоt mаdе frоm natural ingredients. Thе natural health products dо nоt require FDA approval ѕо thеrе іѕ a risk hеrе thаt ѕоmеthіng bеіng sold аѕ аn all-natural product mау nоt actually bе ѕо. Fоr thіѕ reason, уоu hаvе tо stick tо reputed companies аnd sellers whіlе buying аnу natural health medicine. Onе wау tо dо research іѕ tо gо tо big shopping portals like Amazon оr eBay аnd check оut thе user reviews аnd feedback fоr a particular company’s products.

Yоu mіght аlѕо consult reputed health practitioners whо hаvе expertise іn alternative treatments like homeopathy, Ayurvedic оr Unani medicine. Thеѕе people саn prescribe medicines fоr уоu аftеr diagnosing уоur condition. Yоu саn feel muсh safer іn using products thеу prescribe rаthеr thаn just buying ѕоmеthіng оn уоur оwn.