HIV Foundation Health Stomach cancer emerges years beforehand – these symptoms must be taken seriously

Stomach cancer emerges years beforehand – these symptoms must be taken seriously

Stomach cancer is not as common as colon or breast cancer, but its prognosis is less favorable. FOCUS Online explains the reasons why early detection is therefore particularly important, the current therapies and what belongs to prevention.

Stomach cancer is not uncommon, with around 15,000 new cases per year on the list of carcinomas. 9,300 men and 5,600 women are affected. The cause of the gender difference is currently unknown.

Stomach cancer is not one of the most common cancers, but the chances of survival are not good. Two thirds ultimately die of the tumor disease. “We have to assume that three out of four patients will only be diagnosed in a locally extended or even metastatic situation,” reports Michael Stahl, head of the Clinic for Internal Oncology at the Evangelical Clinics Essen-Mitte (KEM).

This late diagnosis means that three quarters of the patients have a poor prognosis and cannot be cured with an operation alone, summarizes the oncologist, who is among other things the author responsible for the German guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer and a member of the lead group of the working group for internal oncology for carcinomas of the stomach and esophagus.

Cause of stomach cancer unknown but there are risk factors

“The only good relative risk factor for stomach cancer is the stomach germ Helicobacter pylori”, the expert clarifies. That would be risk factor number 1.

However, around a quarter of Germans are infected with this bacterium, but only a fraction of them develop gastric cancer. Why they get sick is not yet fully understood, just as much is still unknown about the causes of stomach cancer.

There is also evidence that smoking increases the risk. And what about alcohol? “However, there is no meaningful evidence that alcohol also increases the risk of stomach cancer,” adds the oncologist. However, it can lead to gastric mucosal inflammation, i.e. gastritis, up to and including gastric ulcer (ulcer).

Chronic gastric mucosal inflammation and reflux disease could in turn increase the risk of stomach cancer at the junction with the esophagus.

Stomach cancer can also develop from previous operations on the stomach.

The reflux of bile is also considered a risk factor. This danger arises from being very overweight.

And on the subject of obesity and nutrition: Scientists assume that a one-sided diet with a lot of processed meat products, heavily salted, but also smoked and grilled foods promote stomach cancer – keyword nitrosamines, which are known to be carcinogenic. Rotten and moldy foods pose a general health risk, also with regard to stomach cancer.

Stomach cancer with certain genetic changes

In addition, there are genetic components in the development of gastric cancer: first-degree relatives (children, siblings) of patients with gastric cancer have an increased risk – i.e. if the father, mother or sibling are ill. In addition, stomach cancer can occur if a certain form of colon cancer is already present (hereditary colorectal cancer) or breast cancer.

These are patients with changes in their genetic makeup, for example what is known as microsatellite instability (MSI). You are at an increased risk of various types of cancer, including cancer of the stomach and intestines. “Doctors should keep this in mind if a patient has a colon cancer with microsatellite instability , or if there are multiple carcinomas in the family,” emphasizes the Essen-based oncologist.

However, all of these are only possible risk factors. “Of most patients who fall ill, we don’t know why, because none of these risk factors apply to them,” summarizes Michael Stahl.

Look out for these warning signs

Besides this, there is the second difficulty in gastric cancer – late diagnosis. This is because the symptoms are rather unspecific, affecting the stomach, but are often dismissed as harmless everyday complaints. Early signs can be:

  • Feeling of fullness, pressure in the stomach
  • general upper abdominal discomfort
  • Eructation
  • nausea
  • Vomit
  • Flatulence
  • Loss of appetite

“Anyone who has one or more of these complaints for more than three weeks should have them checked out by a doctor,” advises Michael Stahl.

Do not treat persistent stomach problems with acid blockers on your own initiative

However, many sufferers do not take these symptoms seriously and try to relieve them first with self-medication – wasting valuable time on early cancer therapy and thus a high chance of recovery.

They resort to gastric acid blockers that are available over the counter or prescribed by doctors. The pain will actually go away. “Cancer itself does not cause the pain at the beginning of the disease, rather the mucous membrane defect it causes is irritated by stomach acid – and that triggers the pain,” explains the expert.

This pain disappears when the stomach acid is blocked because it no longer irritates the mucous membrane. The cancer growth is not influenced by this, the tumor can spread undisturbed.

The most important diagnostic tool – gastroscopy

The oncologist therefore urgently recommends that the complaints be clarified by a quality-assured endoscopy, i.e. in a gastroenterological practice that carries out these examinations on a daily basis or in an appropriate center.

The gastroscopy only takes a few minutes; the doctor can not only check the condition of the esophagus and stomach up to the duodenum, but can also test whether Helicobacter is present and possibly take additional tissue samples.

Usually no tumor is discovered, but rather the stomach germ or an enlargement or relocation of the area between the stomach and esophagus (hernia), which can cause reflux. A change in diet can help here or medication may be necessary. Sometimes, however, the doctor finds stomach cancer, “and more and more often in the transition area to the esophagus,” reports the expert from the practice.

The reason for this is that there are more and more people who are very overweight. “Being overweight puts pressure on the abdominal cavity, which is why bile acids and stomach acids flow back into the transition area to the esophagus, which is not designed for frequent contact with these acids and is therefore damaged,” says Michael Stahl, summarizing the chain of reactions.

How stomach cancer spreads

The treatment depends on the severity of the disease (grading):

  • Whether the carcinoma is limited to the mucous membrane,
  • already affects the underlying muscle
  • in addition, the outer connective tissue of the stomach
  • surrounding organs
  • Lymph nodes
  • Has metastasized.

In Asian countries, where the risk of stomach cancer is very high and gastric cancer screening is therefore carried out regularly, the cancer can often be detected early. If the diagnosis “stomach cancer” is made in the early stages, i.e. only the mucous membrane is affected, there is a high chance of recovery.

Unfortunately, this is extremely rare in Germany, explains the oncologist. In this country, stomach cancer is usually only discovered when it has worked its way deeper into the tissue or has already broken through the stomach. This is also the reason why the prognosis for stomach cancer in Germany is so unfavorable – the cancer is recognized very late.

Stomach cancer does not depend on age

How long the time span between gastric cancer in its initial stage and the appearance of metastases cannot be answered. However, Michael Stahl points out in this context that it is a cancer myth that the tumor only grows slowly in the elderly. “We also have elderly patients with rapidly growing stomach cancer, and young ones,” he warns. Young people should also take stomach problems seriously and not dismiss them: “I’m only 35, it can’t be something bad, like cancer.”

Treatments for stomach cancer – chemotherapy plus surgery

Only in the early stages, i.e. when stomach cancer is limited to the mucous membrane, surgery alone is the method of choice. Then it is the only way to cure the patient.

Most patients, however, need more than the operation, the scientist reports. For locally advanced tumors (without metastasis), treatment consists of chemotherapy, surgery and renewed chemotherapy. Chemotherapy before the operation is intended to shrink the tumor and combat (invisible) metastases at an early stage.

Antibody therapy for HER2-positive gastric cancer

In addition, chemotherapy plus antibody therapy with so-called HER2 antibodies is used for certain forms of metastatic gastric cancer. In around 20 percent of gastric cancer patients, HER2 receptors (HER2-positive gastric cancer) are found in particularly large numbers on the cancer cells. They are docking points for growth factors. Occupied by the special antibodies, tumor growth can slow down significantly.

By the way, HER2 receptors are also found on breast cancer cells, keyword HER2-positive breast cancer. This is where this antibody therapy, which incidentally does not count among the immunotherapies, was first used.

In addition, attempts are being made in Germany, the scientist reports, to treat HER2-positive gastric cancer with HER2 antibodies plus immunotherapy. Scientists hope that this will enable them to offer equivalent treatment without chemotherapy in the future. However, the effect of this combination of therapies has not yet been proven.

Immunotherapies for gastric cancer do not (yet) meet expectations

In some forms of cancer such as melanoma or lung cancer, immunotherapies, for example with checkpoint inhibitors, are considered particularly successful today. These drugs are also currently being tested in studies for gastric cancer .

“Unfortunately, the first results are sobering,” reports the scientist. He and his colleagues had hoped that immunotherapy could improve the effect of chemo, but this was not confirmed. “If, however, all therapy options have already been exhausted in a patient, more can be achieved with immunotherapy than without further tumor-specific treatment,” reports Michael Stahl about the studies.

The problem with this is that it is currently difficult to predict in which patients the immunotherapy will work and which will not. Only in the few patients (less than ten percent of all patients with gastric cancer) whose tumors show what is known as high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) can one predict that immunotherapy has a high chance of effectiveness. Overall, the risk of severe side effects under immunotherapy is significantly lower than under chemotherapy, namely 20 percent instead of 60 percent.

The prognosis for gastric cancer is poor because the patients are late

How successful are the therapies at a glance? “The chances of a cure for stomach cancer are on average 25 to 30 percent; if stomach cancer is metastatic, the average life expectancy is one year,” reports Michael Stahl. The prognosis is only very good at a very early stage. However, patients with gastric cancer in this easily curable stage would be the exception in practice because many go to the doctor too late.

Prevention of stomach cancer – three measures

This makes provision and prevention all the more important. This includes, on the one hand, having longer stomach complaints clarified by a gastroscopy – and it does not matter how old the person affected is.

On the other hand, everyone should pay attention to the following three factors. Because little is known about the development of stomach cancer, so few are:

  1. Pay attention to food hygiene, do not eat spoiled food, nothing that is moldy
  2. Do not smoke
  3. Avoid being overweight

This can not only protect the stomach, but is known to promote general health – not smoking and maintaining a normal weight are among the most important preventive measures against cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, heart attack and stroke, but also against cancer.

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Tomatoes, cucumbers, pumpkins: medical professionals are sure that vegetables make us sickTomatoes, cucumbers, pumpkins: medical professionals are sure that vegetables make us sick

Grains and vegetables protect themselves against predators and diseases with special substances. They are unsuitable for human digestion and make us sick, says a US nutritionist. Is he right?

According to popular belief, those who eat vegetables, fruit and whole grain products every day have a particularly healthy diet – and thus possibly make a dangerous mistake, get fat and sick. The American cardiologist and nutritionist Steven R. Gundry is convinced of this, as he explains in his bestseller “The Plant Paradox”, which has also been available as a German version since this year (Steven R. Gundry: “Bad vegetables. How healthy Food makes us sick ”, Beltz).

Vegetable plants use lectins for defense

Lectins are said to be responsible for the harmful effects of supposedly healthy foods. These are certain proteins that plants have developed for defense so that they are spared from fungi, bacteria and parasites. In fact, lectins act similarly to antibiotics and can be toxic, especially when raw.

The substances can harm people

Lectins make green potatoes and raw beans inedible . The best-known lectin is gluten, avoided by many because it can lead to bowel inflammation and celiac disease . Gluten, known as adhesive protein, illustrates the negative properties of lectins particularly impressively: These proteins are extremely easy to bond, stick to cells and tissues, preferably in the intestine. The mucous membrane cells change, the intestinal wall becomes permeable for pollutants, which in turn can make the entire organism sick.

Sick from lectins – from Alzheimer’s to rheumatism

But not only celiac disease is caused by the harmful effects of lectins. The proteins bind to red blood cells, thicken the blood and thus promote arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Steven Gundry also explains many other diseases of civilization with the negative effects of lectins.

Because they can actually dock on all tissues, such as the pancreas, joints, bronchi, nerves, brain, and the immune system attacks them there as intruders, autoimmune diseases would develop: diabetes , arthritis and rheumatism, asthma , Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s .

These foods are high in lectins

The doctor therefore promotes a diet that is as free from lectins as possible (LFE, lectin-free diet). The negative list of foods rich in lectin includes the following products:

  • loaf
  • Potatoes and potato products
  • rice
  • pasta
  • Beans and legumes
  • soy
  • tomatoes
  • Cucumbers
  • pumpkin
  • Grain
  • Vegetable oils
  • sugar

Steven Gundry also largely avoids fish and meat, or at least restricts consumption – because breeding animals are mainly fed with corn and soy. Both types of food naturally contain lectins. If they are genetically modified, however, they provide even more of it to protect the plants from pests even better. With the feed they get into the animal and thus into the meat that is put on the plate.

How to eat a lectin-free diet

The negative list is long, but there are also a number of foods that contain little or no lectins. The positive list of desirable foods suggests, among other things:

  • Coconut oil
  • Coconut milk
  • Hazelnuts
  • Walnuts
  • Sweet chestnuts
  • Olives
  • Tigernut flour, chestnut flour
  • Dark chocolate
  • cream cheese
  • Goat cheese
  • butter
  • cream
  • Crustaceans, fish (rare)
  • certain types of fruit in small quantities (apples, pears, blueberries, raspberries, kiwi, plums, peaches, citrus fruits)
  • Cabbage vegetables of all kinds
  • artichokes
  • garlic
  • Onions
  • Meat (no more than 125 gr per day)
  • Eggs
  • Sweeteners such as erythritol, stevia, xylitol
  • 1 glass of red wine per day

Of course, all products should come from organic cultivation or rearing if possible, i.e. have the best organic quality.

Lectin-free diet – new fad diet or serious prevention and therapy?

At first glance, the impression arises: after fructose, gluten and carbohydrates, lectins are now supposed to be the bad nutrients that lead to obesity and make you sick. But the impression is deceptive. Steven Gundry’s observations should probably be taken seriously. There is some evidence for his theses:

  • It has long been known that lectins are unfavorable and are therefore even referred to as ” anti-nutrients ” in nutritional science . But this fact has had little impact on nutrition plans and diets until now.
  • Initial studies show that lectins can be linked to rheumatism and Parkinson’s disease .

However, there is (still) a lack of larger studies on the extent to which lectins can promote obesity and illness. However, in a self-experiment, Steven Gundry lost 35 kilograms within a year and at the same time lowered his high blood pressure , and the arthritis had also disappeared.

The doctor treated around 1,000 patients on the basis of these positive experiences with the LFE. He observed 200 of them as part of a study . For six months, the patients who all had cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease ate according to this diet. After completing the examination, her heart function and blood values ​​had improved significantly.

Conclusion: It should definitely not be a fashion diet. However, LFE cannot be easily integrated into everyday life, the usual nutrition plan has to be fundamentally redesigned. But to make this as uncomplicated as possible, the doctor gives many tips and simple to fine recipes in his new guide on “bad vegetables”.

The Pomegranate Fruit For Better Heart And Eye HealthThe Pomegranate Fruit For Better Heart And Eye Health

If уоu аrе a fan оf great tasting fruits thаt аrе good fоr уоu thаt eliminate thе compliant thаt a lot оf people hаvе thаt foods thаt аrе good fоr уоu don’t taste good, thеn уоu ѕhоuld add thе Pomegranate fruit tо уоur diet. Thіѕ fruit іѕ rich іn vitamins, minerals аnd antioxidants thаt provide уоu wіth a variety оf health benefits ranging frоm better heart health, good digestive health tо better immunity аnd prostate health аѕ wеll. Hоwеvеr, did уоu know thаt thе Pomegranate fruit іѕ аlѕо good fоr уоur heart аnd уоur eyes аѕ well? Thеrеfоrе, hеrе іѕ ѕоmе information аѕ tо thе reasons whу уоu ѕhоuld include thе Pomegranate fruit іn уоur diet:

Eye Health: Thіѕ fruit іѕ rich іn Vitamins A, B аnd C аnd E. Vitamin A іѕ known аѕ thе Vitamin thаt supports vision health. Thіѕ іѕ true frоm thе point оf view оf thе fact thаt a deficiency іn thіѕ vitamin саn саuѕе night blindness. Thеrеfоrе, іf уоu аrе concerned аbоut doing thе things thаt уоu need tо dо tо improve уоur night vision thіѕ nutrient саn help уоu tо achieve thаt objective. In scientific studies research hаѕ shown thаt Vitamin B consumption hаѕ reduced thе risks fоr age related vision disorders ѕuсh аѕ Macular Degeneration аnd cataracts.

Heart Health: Thіѕ fruit іѕ rich іn Potassium. Potassium hаѕ bееn shown іn scientific research studies tо improve heart health. Duе tо thе fact thаt thе body’s circulation ѕуѕtеm іѕ connective consuming аn adequate аmоunt оf Potassium іn уоur diet саn increase circulation tо thе heart. An increase іn circulation tо thіѕ organ аlѕо benefits уоur eyes. Thіѕ іѕ duе tо thе fact thаt a healthy heart equals a properly working visual ѕуѕtеm. Alѕо, Vitamin C supports bоth heart health аnd eye health аѕ wеll. Thіѕ іѕ duе tо thе fact thаt іt lowers blood pressure аnd аlѕо supports eye health bу maintaining healthy pressure levels іn thе eyes thеrеbу reducing thе risks fоr thе age related eye disease Glaucoma.

Prostate Health: A research study measured thе rates оf Increasing PSA levels іn men аnd thе effects thаt drinking Pomegranate Juice wоuld hаvе оn thіѕ aspect оf thеіr prostate health. Thіѕ study revealed thаt drinking Pomegranate Juice significantly slowed thе rate оf increasing PSA levels іn men wіth unhealthy levels оf PSA іn thеіr ѕуѕtеm аѕ wеll аѕ thоѕе whо wеrе suffering frоm prostate cancer. Thіѕ іѕ good news fоr уоu іf уоu hаvе concerns аbоut уоur prostate health аѕ thеrе іѕ a connection bеtwееn a reduction іn PSA levels аnd a reduced risk fоr prostate cancer аnd problems associated wіth thе enlargement оf thе Prostate.

Thе Pomegranate fruit іѕ a healthy fruit thаt provides a series оf health benefits. Sоmе оf thеѕе include better heart health, better digestive health аnd better eye health аѕ wеll. Thеrе іѕ a connection bеtwееn heart health аnd eye health. Thе nutrients contained іn thе Pomegranate fruit consists оf vitamins A,B,C аnd E аnd іt аlѕо contains Potassium; nutrients thаt work tоgеthеr collectively tо improve thе health оf bоth thе eyes аnd thе heart аѕ wеll. Bу consuming thіѕ fruit уоu саn dо thе things thаt уоu need tо dо tо increase уоur heart health аnd eye health аt thе ѕаmе tіmе.

The big meat check: how much you can eat and how you can prepare it healthilyThe big meat check: how much you can eat and how you can prepare it healthily

Givers of strength with essential vitamins and protein or cholesterol bombs loaded with antibiotics – the subject of meat is hotly debated. FOCUS Online names the most important facts about the individual types of meat – and shows what “healthy” fat traps are.

The hunger for meat in Germany is great. Every inhabitant eats around 60 kilograms per year. Around 750 million animals are therefore slaughtered every year. Meat consumption has been falling for years, but only in the single-digit range. However, statistically speaking, every citizen still consumes around 1,100 animals in his life, including mainly chickens, but also just under 50 pigs and four cattle, as the BUND’s last meat atlas in 2018 calculated.

Meat causes a lot of CO 2 , but provides the best protein

Meat is thus undoubtedly one of the staple foods. However, it is left out of the picture that meat consumption is devastating for the climate balance: Through animal production, a meat eater pollutes the atmosphere with a good 1,800 kilograms of CO 2 per year and thus heats the climate catastrophe, vegetarians only make up about half of this.

Aside from that: nutritionally, meat offers a lot of positives. “Meat is definitely a high-quality food because it provides us with protein in particularly good bioavailability,” says Antje Gahl, press spokeswoman for the German Nutrition Society ( DGE ).

Animal protein, i.e. from meat and dairy products, can be used so well by our body because the composition of the amino acids is very similar to that of human protein. Animal protein usually contains all of the essential amino acids that we need in sufficient quantities, while plant-based foods often do not have the full spectrum of these amino acids. The body can therefore produce protein particularly quickly and appropriately from animal protein – for the muscles, for example.

In addition, meat is also characterized by other valuable ingredients:

  • readily available iron,

  • Selenium and

  • zinc

– all minerals and trace elements that are indispensable for blood formation, immune system, cell health, fertility and much more. Another unique feature is the high proportion of B vitamins, including vitamin B12 , which is only found in sufficient quantities in animal foods such as meat, eggs, milk and dairy products.

Preserving nutrients through proper cooking

To ensure that these nutrients are preserved as well as possible during preparation, the expert recommends steaming and slow frying, preferably with little fat. Some B vitamins are sensitive to heat, such as vitamins B1, B2 and B6 – vitamin B12 a little less.

The way in which meat and meat products are prepared determines how many vitamins are destroyed and how undesirable pollutants are formed. Therefore, everyone should consciously pay attention to high temperatures such as when grilling or the duration of heating. The longer and hotter it is cooked, the more pollutants are created or parts of the valuable B vitamins are destroyed.

Nevertheless, barbecuing is particularly popular . An important tip from the expert for grilling: “Dab the marinade before you put the meat on the grill.” Otherwise it will drip into the embers, burn and, among other things, produce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PAHs are strongly suspected of increasing the risk of cancer.

Meat is healthy when prepared correctly. But is it also an indispensable food? “No”, says the qualified ecotrophologist. Apart from vitamin B12, which is also contained in milk and dairy products, each of these nutrients can be obtained from plant-based foods – even if not in the ideal composition and high quality that is given with meat.

The “dark side” of meat: cholesterol, purine and arachidonic acid

However, meat is also the main source of cholesterol. In high amounts, cholesterol is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis and thus heart attack and stroke. It is not only present in the visible fat in the meat, but also in low-fat pieces. 100 grams of lean meat provide around 50 milligrams of cholesterol per 100 grams. 300 milligrams per day is the maximum limit for the intake of cholesterol per day for healthy people, i.e. without a lipid metabolism disorder.

In addition, meat, especially offal, contains purine, i.e. uric acid, which supports gout. Arachidonic acid plays a role as the third negative, natural ingredient in meat. The body creates inflammatory substances from this fatty acid. Diet suggestions for diseases with an inflammatory character such as rheumatism are therefore always meat-free or strictly reduced in meat.

“The majority of the amount of cholesterol and purine ingested with food actually comes from meat and meat products such as sausage and ham, a particularly large proportion of which have offal,” confirms the scientist. Nevertheless, cholesterol is an indispensable substance in the body because it takes on important tasks in building cells and nerves. “But our body also produces cholesterol itself and is therefore not dependent on the intake with food,” she explains. Anyone who then eats a lot of meat and sausage quickly absorbs high amounts of cholesterol.

Red meat vs. White meat

However, not all meat is created equal . When it comes to health, a distinction is made between red and white meat. Red meat, i.e. beef, pork, lamb, sheep and goat, is considered particularly unhealthy because it is said to favor diseases.

“Anyone who eats a lot of red meat and especially processed red meat has a higher risk of colon cancer, as many studies indicate, according to the current state of knowledge, consumption of white meat (poultry) is not related to cancer,” says the qualified ecotrophologist. Overall, however, the quality, quantity and method of preparation of the meat are decisive in contributing to a healthy diet.

Pork is leaner, chicken is fatter than expected

But the animal from which the meat comes also plays an important role. How about pork, the most popular meat in Germany and the other types of meat consumed in this country?

pig

Depending on the fat content, pork provides between 100 and 250 kilocalories per 100 grams, 70 milligrams of cholesterol. It also has a high content of vitamins B1 and B6.

So pork is surprisingly low in calories, but provides more cholesterol than, for example, beef. “Reach less for high-fat parts,” advises Antje Gahl, “but because of its vitamin B1 and B6, zinc and iron content, pork can make a contribution to a wholesome diet.”

Pork is popular because of its fine taste and can be used in many ways, quickly prepared and is particularly suitable as pan-fried meat (schnitzel) or roast with a crispy rind.

Beef

In terms of calorie content, beef is comparable to pork, depending on the fat, has around 150 to 200 kilocalories per 100 grams and 50 milligrams of cholesterol. It scores with high levels of vitamin B12, zinc and iron.

The strong taste of beef is particularly appreciated by many meat eaters. Because of its long fibers, beef lean meat must be specially prepared; apart from the fillet pieces, it requires a longer cooking time.

poultry

White, tender meat and a nutty taste are the characteristics of chicken, duck, turkey and goose. Because of the layer of fat under the skin, poultry meat provides a relatively large number of calories, around 270 kilocalories per 100 grams. If you choose a skin-free steak, you only get around 160 kilocalories. The fat content is around 25 grams per 100 grams of poultry meat.

In addition, poultry meat is particularly rich in protein, so it provides a lot of energy. Zinc, potassium and B vitamins make poultry meat particularly healthy.

But be careful, the crispy skin of chicken and duck contains lots of purines, so it can increase the risk of gout. This is particularly relevant for those who already have elevated purine levels, warns the expert. However, poultry is safe for healthy people in this context.

But: “Poultry meat contains significantly more cholesterol than is generally assumed, namely around 90 milligrams per 100 grams,” she adds. Chicken may be low in fat, but that doesn’t mean it’s low in cholesterol, as is often assumed.

lamb

The tender, dark meat with its strong taste is not one of the Germans’ favorite varieties. However, it contains many B vitamins as well as iron and has a high proportion of valuable protein. What is surprising, however, is that on average lamb provides more calories than pork, almost 200 kilocalories per 100 grams of fresh meat, as well as 70 milligrams of cholesterol and many saturated (unfavorable) fatty acids.

Particular attention should be paid to the fatty acid composition with many saturated fatty acids in lamb. Like chicken, lamb is not fundamentally unproblematic when it comes to fat – as is often assumed.

Wild

It looks different with game meat. Saddle of venison, venison ragout, roast venison and wild boar are rarely served in Germany, although the meat is actually very low in fat, rich in protein and rich in vitamins B1 and B2, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc and selenium – and therefore healthy. Depending on the variety, it provides only 100 to 160 kilocalories per 100 grams of fresh produce, with less than ten grams of fat, around 60 milligrams of cholesterol and hardly any purine.

However, game meat should only be enjoyed well cooked because it can contain parasites, as the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment ( BfR ) warns. The radiation exposure of venison can also be high, depending on the region. “In wild boars, values ​​are still occasionally measured today that exceed the limit value for marketing 600 Becquerel per kilogram by more than ten times,” reports the Federal Office for Radiation Protection BfS .

horse

Horse meat is also controversial, although it is very healthy with a high content of minerals, vitamins and protein, but low in fat (around two grams per 100 grams of meat) and low in cholesterol. Here there are more psychological reasons why the meat of the popular sport animals is frowned upon, in contrast to France , where it is coveted as a delicacy.

You can eat that much meat

Meat is therefore quite healthy. “Nobody has to go without meat in principle, because it is a valuable part of our diet,” says the expert. However, it depends on the amount, and the following applies: less is more.

The DGE recommends that people who eat meat do not consume more than 300 to 600 grams of meat and meat products per week. That goes for adults. So it’s practical: eat meatless for a few days, then a meat dish. A portion of meat can weigh 100 to 150 grams, a slice of cold cuts 15 to 25 grams, depending on the type.

“Meat makes perfect sense in a wholesome diet, because it covers the need for many important nutrients with a single food. Even these small amounts are sufficient for this. It is best to choose predominantly plant-based foods and supplement them with animal-based foods, ”emphasizes Antje Gahl.

Of course, that doesn’t mean everyone has to eat meat. Those who prefer a vegetarian diet can supply these nutrients through a targeted selection of different types of vegetables and fruits, whole grain products, legumes, nuts and dairy products.

Organic meat or meat from conventional farming

Meat consumption in moderation is therefore quite healthy. It is not necessary to weigh one type of meat against another. Variety as well as personal preferences, taste and last but not least religion are important, emphasizes the qualified ecotrophologist. For more and more people, the ecological balance of rearing and animal welfare also play a role, keyword antibiotics, but also manure pollution and thus nitrate in the groundwater.

In organic animal husbandry, even fewer antibiotics may be used than in conventional farming, although there has also been a reduction recently. It is different with manure, whether organic or bulk, every animal produces just as much of it.

The best advice: eat less animal foods and more plant-based ones. In this way, fewer resources are used, the environment is less polluted and CO 2 emissions would be significantly reduced. Because meat production in particular produces a lot of the climate gas methane, which is many times more harmful to the climate than CO 2 .

Halve meat consumption

But as mentioned at the beginning: With 60 kilograms of meat consumed per person per year, Germany is far from the moderate recommendations of the DGE, which make up at most half of this amount. Accordingly, healthy meat consumption should hardly exceed around 30 kilograms per year – for the benefit of health, animals and the environment.